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The flow of genes from Neanderthal populations to modern human was not all one way. Sergi Castellano of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, has in reported that while Denisovan and Neanderthal genomes are more related to each other than they are to us, Siberian Neanderthal genomes show similarity to the modern human gene pool, more so than to European Neanderthal populations.
The evidence suggests that the Neanderthal populations interbred with modern humans possibly , years ago, probably somewhere in the Near East.
Studies of a Neanderthal child at Gibraltar show from brain development and teeth eruption that Neanderthal children may have matured more rapidly than is the case for Homo sapiens.
In other words, H. The main find was a skeleton believed to be a woman of about 30 years of age. Found in , it has been dated to approximately 18, years old.
However, there is an ongoing debate over whether H. This, coupled with pathological dwarfism, could have resulted in a significantly diminutive human.
The other major attack on H. The hypothesis of pathological dwarfism, however, fails to explain additional anatomical features that are unlike those of modern humans diseased or not but much like those of ancient members of our genus.
Aside from cranial features, these features include the form of bones in the wrist, forearm, shoulder, knees, and feet. Additionally, this hypothesis fails to explain the find of multiple examples of individuals with these same characteristics, indicating they were common to a large population, and not limited to one individual.
The direct evidence suggests there was a migration of H. A subsequent migration both within and out of Africa eventually replaced the earlier dispersed H.
This migration and origin theory is usually referred to as the "recent single-origin hypothesis" or "out of Africa" theory.
The Toba catastrophe theory , which postulates a population bottleneck for H. The use of tools has been interpreted as a sign of intelligence, and it has been theorized that tool use may have stimulated certain aspects of human evolution, especially the continued expansion of the human brain.
The brain of a modern human consumes about 13 watts kilocalories per day , a fifth of the body's resting power consumption. Researchers have suggested that early hominins were thus under evolutionary pressure to increase their capacity to create and use tools.
Precisely when early humans started to use tools is difficult to determine, because the more primitive these tools are for example, sharp-edged stones the more difficult it is to decide whether they are natural objects or human artifacts.
Many species make and use tools , but it is the human genus that dominates the areas of making and using more complex tools. The oldest known tools are flakes from West Turkana, Kenya, which date to 3.
These tools date to about 2. It is a possibility but does not yet represent solid evidence. It allows humans the dexterity and strength to make and use complex tools.
This unique anatomical feature separates humans from apes and other nonhuman primates, and is not seen in human fossils older than 1.
Bernard Wood noted that Paranthropus co-existed with the early Homo species in the area of the "Oldowan Industrial Complex" over roughly the same span of time.
Although there is no direct evidence which identifies Paranthropus as the tool makers, their anatomy lends to indirect evidence of their capabilities in this area.
Most paleoanthropologists agree that the early Homo species were indeed responsible for most of the Oldowan tools found. They argue that when most of the Oldowan tools were found in association with human fossils, Homo was always present, but Paranthropus was not.
In , Randall Susman used the anatomy of opposable thumbs as the basis for his argument that both the Homo and Paranthropus species were toolmakers.
He compared bones and muscles of human and chimpanzee thumbs, finding that humans have 3 muscles which are lacking in chimpanzees. Humans also have thicker metacarpals with broader heads, allowing more precise grasping than the chimpanzee hand can perform.
Susman posited that modern anatomy of the human opposable thumb is an evolutionary response to the requirements associated with making and handling tools and that both species were indeed toolmakers.
Stone tools are first attested around 2. Archaeologists working in the Great Rift Valley in Kenya have discovered the oldest known stone tools in the world.
Dated to around 3. The period from ,—, years ago is also known as the Acheulean , when H. After , BP the more refined so-called Levallois technique was developed, a series of consecutive strikes, by which scrapers, slicers "racloirs" , needles, and flattened needles were made.
In this period they also started to make tools out of bone. Until about 50,—40, years ago, the use of stone tools seems to have progressed stepwise.
Currently paleoanthropologists are debating whether these Homo species possessed some or many of the cultural and behavioral traits associated with modern humans such as language, complex symbolic thinking, technological creativity etc.
It seems that they were culturally conservative maintaining simple technologies and foraging patterns over very long periods.
Around 50, BP, modern human culture started to evolve more rapidly. The transition to behavioral modernity has been characterized by most as a Eurasian "Great Leap Forward",  or as the "Upper Palaeolithic Revolution",  due to the sudden appearance of distinctive signs of modern behavior and big game hunting  in the archaeological record.
Some other scholars consider the transition to have been more gradual, noting that some features had already appeared among archaic African Homo sapiens since , years ago.
Modern humans started burying their dead, using animal hides to make clothing, hunting with more sophisticated techniques such as using trapping pits or driving animals off cliffs , and engaging in cave painting.
Among concrete examples of modern human behavior , anthropologists include specialization of tools, use of jewellery and images such as cave drawings , organization of living space, rituals for example, burials with grave gifts , specialized hunting techniques, exploration of less hospitable geographical areas, and barter trade networks.
Debate continues as to whether a "revolution" led to modern humans "the big bang of human consciousness" , or whether the evolution was more "gradual".
Evolution has continued in anatomically modern human populations, which are affected by both natural selection and genetic drift.
Although selection pressure on some traits, such as resistance to smallpox, has decreased in modern human life, humans are still undergoing natural selection for many other traits.
Some of these are due to specific environmental pressures, while others are related to lifestyle changes since the development of agriculture 10, years ago , urban civilization 5, , and industrialization years ago.
It has been argued that human evolution has accelerated since the development of agriculture 10, years ago and civilization some 5, years ago, resulting, it is claimed, in substantial genetic differences between different current human populations.
Particularly conspicuous is variation in superficial characteristics, such as Afro-textured hair , or the recent evolution of light skin and blond hair in some populations, which are attributed to differences in climate.
Particularly strong selective pressures have resulted in high-altitude adaptation in humans , with different ones in different isolated populations.
Studies of the genetic basis show that some developed very recently, with Tibetans evolving over 3, years to have high proportions of an allele of EPAS1 that is adaptive to high altitudes.
Other evolution is related to endemic diseases: For example, the population at risk of the severe debilitating disease kuru has significant over-representation of an immune variant of the prion protein gene GV versus non-immune alleles.
The frequency of this genetic variant is due to the survival of immune persons. Recent human evolution related to agriculture includes genetic resistance to infectious disease that has appeared in human populations by crossing the species barrier from domesticated animals,  as well as changes in metabolism due to changes in diet, such as lactase persistence.
In contemporary times, since industrialization, some trends have been observed: This list is in chronological order across the table by genus.
Please see articles for more information. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Hominid evolution. Evolutionary process leading up to the appearance of anatomically modern humans.
Life timeline and Nature timeline. A global mapping model of human migration, based from divergence of the mitochondrial DNA which indicates the matrilineage.
A "trellis" as Milford H. Wolpoff called it that emphasizes back-and-forth gene flow among geographic regions.
Different models for the beginning of the present human species. Early human migrations , Recent African origin of modern humans , Multiregional origin of modern humans , and Early hominids in Southeast Asia.
Human evolutionary genetics and Human genetic variation. Interbreeding between archaic and modern humans. For evolutionary history before primates, see Evolution of mammals , Evolutionary history of life , and Timeline of human evolution.
It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Homo. Control of fire by early humans. Evolutionary Biology , October Scientific American , May Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology.
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